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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2018年09月第24卷第5期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2018)05-0019-07
 
历史唯物主义只适用于资本主义社会吗?——评卢卡奇的一个影响深远的观点
 
舒远招,吴雪
 
(湖南大学马克思主义学院,湖南长沙,410082)
 
摘  要: 卢卡奇认为历史唯物主义是资本主义社会的一种自我认识,将之运用于前资本主义社会会遇到根本性的困难。这一观点极具启发性,它提出了一个极富挑战意味的问题:历史唯物主义作为一种方法是否具有对所有人类社会形态的普适性?这一观点在国内外学界产生了深远影响,但也受到了一些学者的质疑。客观而言,这种观点是不能成立的,因为它不符合马克思、恩格斯有关历史唯物主义的一贯论述,违背了他们关于历史唯物主义适用于整个人类社会历史的基本思想。他误读了《家庭、私有制和国家的起源》,把恩格斯关于野蛮时代和文明时代的区分等同于前资本主义时代和资本主义时代的区分;他在援引马克思的《á政治经济学批判ñ导言》时,混淆了历史唯物主义的方法与马克思的政治经济学的方法,由此导致了对政治经济学与历史唯物主义的混淆。
 
关键词: 历史唯物主义;适用范围;卢卡奇;资本主义社会;前资本主义社会
 
 
Is historical materialism only applicable to the capitalist society? Commenting on an influential view of Lukács'
 
SHU Yuanzhao, WU Xue
 
(School of Marxism, Hunan University, Changsha 410082)
 
Abstract: Lukács believes that historical materialism is a kind of self-knowledge of the capitalist society and that it will encounter fundamental difficulties to apply it to the pre-capitalist society. This view is very illuminating, raising an extremely challenging question whether historical materialism as a method is universal to all forms of human society. This view has exerted a profound influence on the academic circles at home and abroad, but has also been questioned by some scholars. Objectively speaking, this view cannot stand still because it does not accord with the consistent account of historical materialism by Marx and Engels, and it has violated their basic view that historical materialism can be applied to the entire history of human society. Lukács has misread The Origins of Family, Private Ownership and the State, equating Engels' distinction between barbarism and civilization with that between the pre-capitalist era and the capitalist era. And when he cites Marx' The Introduction of the Critique of Political Economy, he mixes up the method of historical materialism and Marx' method of political economics, which has led to the confusion of political economics and historical materialism.
 
Key words: historical materialism; scope of application; Lukács; capitalist society; pre-capitalist society
 
 
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