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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2017年11月第23卷第6期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2017)06-0021-06
 
“性与天道”的呈现与遮蔽——论冯友兰“负的方法”
 
代玉民
 
(南京大学哲学系,江苏南京,210023)
 
摘  要: 在冯友兰创立新理学以“接著”宋明之理学“讲”时,作为中国传统哲学智慧的性与天道亦被承续其中。为呈现此智慧,冯先生创立了负的方法,此法是一种以逻辑分析为基本形式、以呈现形而上学之神秘对象的形而上学方法。在呈现性与天道的过程中,负的方法借鉴了道家与禅宗的方法,试图以否定性命题呈现性与天道的“边界”,进而以此边界使人对性与天道有所知。实际上,逻辑性的负的方法与中国传统哲学中的直觉、体验并不契合,因而不能完全呈现传统的性与天道智慧。不过,从现代哲学角度看,冯先生却通过负的方法将传统的性与天道智慧带入了现代形而上学领域,并使其得到了一定程度的呈现。
 
关键词: 冯友兰;负的方法;性与天道;道家;禅宗
 
 
Covering and discovering of the Nature and Tao: On Feng Youlan’s Negative Method
 
DAI Yumin
 
(Department of Philosophy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China)
 
Abstract: When Feng Youlan found the Neo-Li teaching to develop the Li teaching of Song and Ming Neo-Confucianism, the wisdom of Nature and Tao was preserved in it. In order to discover this wisdom, Mr. Feng created the Negative Method with logical analysis as its basic form and with discovering metaphysical and mysterious object as its metaphysical approach. In discovering the wisdom of Nature and Tao, the Negative Method, borrows from Daoism and Confucianism, attempts to discover the boundary between Nature and Tao through negative proposition so as to acknowledge people of Nature and Tao. Actually, the logical form of the Negative Method is not compatible with intuition and experience in Chinese traditional philosophy, hence being unable to discover fully the Nature and Tao. However, from the perspective of modern philosophy, Mr. Feng has, through Negative Method, taken the traditional wisdom of Nature and Tao into modern metaphysics, and has discovered the wisdom of Nature and Tao to some extent.
 
Key words: Feng Youlan; Negative Method; Nature and Tao; Daoism; Zen Buddhism
 
 
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