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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2017年09月第23卷第5期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2017)05-0184-06
 
《西游记》小说之前的观音书写——以“玄奘西行”题材为中心
 
周秋良
 
(中南大学文学与新闻传播学院,湖南长沙,410083)
 
摘  要: 在以“玄奘西行”为题材的文献作品中,有大量关于观音的书写。对其进行纵向梳理,可以清晰地考察出我国早期观音信仰的衍化轨迹。《大唐西域记》和《大慈恩寺三藏法师传》尚属实录性质,其中关于观音信仰的叙写,真实地反映了一个佛教信徒所亲身经历的宗教体验,但还没有对观音形象进行有意识的创造。随着“玄奘西行”故事的发展,观音的地位日渐凸显。在《大唐三藏取经诗话》中,观音虽作为主要神灵出现,但还处于次要地位,也没出现具体的真身形象。《西游记》杂剧是第一个以文学创作为目的的关于玄奘西行取经的作品,观音在取经途中的作用大大加强,已经成为取经队伍的组织者和主要保护者,更主要的是,还首次出现了具体的南海观音形象。小说《西游记》对南海观音形象的塑造就是承接杂剧《西游记》而来的。
 
关键词: 玄奘西行;观音信仰;观音书写
 
 
The writing of Avalokitesvara before The Journey to the West: On the theme of “Xuan Zang westbound”
 
ZHOU Qiuliang
 
(School of Literature and Journalism, Central South University, Hunan 410083, China)
 
Abstract: There are a large number of literary works written on the theme of “Xuan Zang westbound”. Combing longitudinally, we can clearly investigate the origin of China’s early goddess of mercy trajectory. The “Buddhist Records” and “Da Ci’en Temple Tripitaka Master Biography” are of the nature of record, in which the narration of belief in Guanyin truly reflected a Buddhist's religious experience, but no conscious creation about Guanyin had come out up to that time. With the development of the story of “Xuan Zang westbound,” Guanyin's position became prominent. In “Xuan Zang,” the main deity appears as a goddess, but in the secondary position with no specific body image. The drama Journey to the West is the first literary creation about Xuan Zang westbound, in which Guanyin's role in their pilgrimage is greatly strengthened as the organizer and major protector of the pilgrimage group and more importantly with a specific image as the South China Sea Guanyin. The South China Sea Guanyin image in te novel Journey to the West is taken from the drama Journey to the West.
 
Key words: Xuanzang westbound; Guanyin faith; Guanyin writing
 
 
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