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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2017年09月第23卷第5期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2017)05-0122-07
 
论马克思民主观较熊彼特民主观的高位格品质
 
张卫良,胡文根
 
(中南大学马克思主义学院,湖南长沙,410083)
 
摘  要: 马克思民主观与熊彼特民主观是社会主义与资本主义两种意识形态在民主议题上两条完全不同的水道,通过比较分析这两种民主观,有助于还原民主的实质,澄清人们在民主问题上的错误认识,为确证社会主义民主的优越性提供思路。从本质上说,熊彼特民主观是一种“经济政治学”民主观,马克思民主观是一种“政治经济学”民主观,二者的根本区别在于是否秉持唯物史观与人民主体立场。熊彼特的民主观在方法论上以现代生产的经济技术形式抽空了民主的社会历史规定性和人民主体立场;马克思民主观则始终秉持唯物史观与人民主体立场,故其在民主结论、民主起点、民主方法及民主场域上,较熊彼特民主观有着高位格的理论品质。而从实践层面考察,马克思民主观指导下的中国特色社会主义政治民主模式较熊彼特民主观指导下的欧洲社会民主主义民主模式,在民主形式、民主对象与民主传播上也具备高位格的实践品质。
 
关键词: 马克思民主观;熊彼特民主观;高位格;理论品质;实践品质
 
 
On the higher quality of Marx’s democratic view compared with Schumpeter’s democratic view
 
ZHANG Weiliang, HU Wengen
 
(College of Marxism, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China)
 
Abstract: Marx's and Schumpeter's democratic views are two completely different paths on democratic issues. In ideology, the former is socialism and the latter is capitalism. By making a comparison between these two paths of democratic view, we can restore the essence of democracy and clarity the mistakes people have made in understanding democracy so as to provide a better method to verify the priority of socialist democracy. In essence, Schumpeter’s democratic view is from the perspective of Economic Politics, while Marx’s democratic view is based on the perspective of Political Economy. The fundamental difference between the two is whether it adheres to the historical materialism or people’s subjective view. On epistemology, the social and historical provisions of democracy and the people’s subjective view in Schumpeter’s democratic view have been removed by the modern form of economic and technological production, while Marx’s democratic view has always been adhering to the historical materialism and the people’s subjective view. Hence, either on the conclusion, the starting point, the method or field of democracy, Marx’s democratic view has higher quality than Schumpeter’s in theoretical characteristics. In practice, the democratic political model with Chinese characteristics based on the Marx’ democratic view is higher in democratic form, democratic object as well as democratic communication than the European social democratic model guided by the Schumpeter’s democratic view.
 
Key words: Marx’s democratic view; Schumpeter’s democratic view; higher quality; theoretical quality; practical quality
 
 
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