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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2017年09月第23卷第5期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2017)05-0067-09
 
战时强迫失踪与国际人道法的规制考量
 
邵怿
 
(中国社会科学院研究生院,北京,100270;奥斯陆大学挪威人权中心,奥斯陆,0864)
 
摘  要: 有鉴于二战后拉丁美洲各国的广泛使用,强迫失踪早期往往被定义为一项“国家镇压政策”,其实质是对于人权大规模、系统的侵害。但自20世纪90年代以来,强迫失踪与战争及武装冲突的结合开始日益密切化、常态化以及主流化,越来越多地被交战方视为一种作战手段来加以使用。虽然当前直接针对强迫失踪行为与相关受害人救济的规制在国际人道法渊源之中依旧处于空白,但总结日内瓦公约及其议定书的相关规定,通过对平民与战俘的拘留程序进行规范,对个人战时家庭生活权与公正司法权的保障,可以从根源上抑制战时强迫失踪的发生,进而最大限度地维护战时基本人权的享有。
 
关键词: 强迫失踪;国际人道法;日内瓦公约;国家行为;家庭权
 
 
Regulation consideration over enforced disappearance under International Humanitarian Law at war times
 
SHAO Yi
 
(Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing 100270, China;
Norwegian Center for Human Rights, University of Oslo, Oslo 0864, Norway)
 
Abstract: In view of its wide use in Latin American countries since World War II, enforced disappearance has been regarded earlier as a "national repressive policy" serving the dictatorship, with its essence being extensive and systematic aggression in human rights, and therefore most academics prefer to study it in the perspective of Human Rights Law. However since the 1990s, enforced disappearance has been in combined use with war and armed conflicts in an increasingly close and normalized mainstream way, employed more and more as a tactics of warfare by both sides. In spite of the lack of direct regulation on enforced disappearance and related relief for the victim, it is still essential to curb the occurrences of enforced disappearance so as to ensure obtaining basic human rights at war times to the maximum by regulating the procedure of detention of both civilians and war prisoners and by ensuring individual rights of family life at war and just jurisdiction.
 
Key words: enforced disappearance; International Humanitarian Law; Geneva Convention; State Act; family rights
 
 
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