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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2017年09月第23卷第5期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2017)05-0059-08
 
职务发明奖酬合理性原则研究——以日本专利法为借鉴
 
刘强,徐芃
 
(中南大学法学院,湖南长沙,410083)
 
摘  要: 单位向发明人支付职务发明奖酬应当遵循合理性原则,从而实现两者之间利益的平衡。法院在适用该原则时,可以对当事人之间约定的奖酬进行事后审查,或者在没有约定及约定不合理时予以事前认定。事后审查偏重于程序性规制,而事前认定则偏重于实体性要求。我国应当借鉴日本经验,在《专利法》第四次修改时进一步明确“合理利益”要求。为完善对当事人约定奖酬的审查,要改进合理性原则的立法体例、充分尊重当事人约定奖酬的意思自治、明确约定奖酬合理性审查的程序性标准。为提升合理奖酬的司法裁定质量,不应将法定标准作为合理奖酬标准以及过度提高法定奖酬比例,应当明确认定合理奖酬数额的影响因素。由此,可以保障单位与发明人双方围绕职务发明所享有的合理利益。
 
关键词: 职务发明;奖酬;合理性原则;事后审查;事前认定
 
 
Research on principle of reasonableness in the employee invention reward and remuneration: With reference to Japanese patent law
 
LIU Qiang, XU Peng
 
(School of Law, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China)
 
Abstract: Employee invention unit should pay remuneration for the inventor in accordance with the principle of reasonableness, thus achieving the balance between both interests. When applying the rules, the court can use posterior review over the reward of the contract between the parties, and prior cognizance when there is no contract or the contract being unreasonable. The posterior review emphasizes procedural regulation, while the prior cognizance stresses substantive requirements. China should learn from the experience of Japan, and further clarify the requirements of “legitimate interests” in the fourth amendment of “patent law.” For the review mechanism on consideration parties agreed to pay, the legislative style of rationality principle should be improved, respect the contract between parties, and clarify the procedure criteria to review its reasonableness. The rules of judicial recognition of the reasonable reward should not deem the legal award as reasonable, and determine the factors affecting the reasonable reward rather than over-increasing the proportion of legal award,. Thus, we can protect the legitimate interests of both the unit and the inventor about the invention of the service.
 
Key words: employee invention; rewards and remuneration; the principle of reasonableness; ex-post review; ex-ante cognizance
 
 
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