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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2008年08月第14卷第4期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2008)04−0483−05
 
政治哲学语境中的阿克顿思想述评
 
杨晓东
 
(厦门大学哲学系,福建厦门,361005)
 
摘  要: 阿克顿从人类义务的角度来阐释自由,把自由视为人类良知的守望者,认为自由的神圣职责就是防止不正当的支配优势的出现。他反对政府拥有绝对的权力,主张建立代议制政府、推行宗教宽容以保障个人的自由。在反思法国大革命时,他把暴力革命看成是改革的最大敌人和违背自由原则的恐怖,提出要警惕以平等,以人民和民主的名义对自由带来的伤害。由此,阿克顿在近代欧洲政治哲学发展史上将自由的价值提升到前所未有的高度,极大地推动了19世纪自由主义的发展。
 
关键词: 阿克顿;自由;良知;民主
 
 
Review on Acton’s ideas under political philosophy situation
 
YANG Xiaodong
 
(Department of Philosophy, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China)
 
Abstract:  Acton explained freedom from the perspective of human obligations, regarded Freedom as the Watcher of Human Conscience. What’s more, he considered that the sacred duty of freedom was to prevent the emergence of an improper dominant position. He also opposed that the government had absolute power, advocated the establishment of representative government, implemented religious tolerance in order to protect individual freedom. When reflecting on the French Revolution, he regarded the violent revolution as the biggest enemy of reform and the terror of violation of the principle of freedom. Then he proposed that we should be alert to the injury of freedom in the name of equality, and democracy of the people. Therefore, in the modern history of the development of European political philosophy, Acton promoted the value of the freedom to unprecedented levels via having greatly promoted the development of liberalism in 19th century.
 
Key words:  Acton; Freedom; conscience; democracy
 
 
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