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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2017年05月第23卷第3期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2017)03-0178-08
 
春秋时期“德”观念中的“事神”
 
谭笑
 
(南京大学历史学院,江苏南京,210023)
 
摘  要: 源自周公时的“德”在春秋时期仍是重要的思想观念,内涵“事神”和“抚民”两种倾向。多数学者因以春秋之时“德”与抚民的言论多次关联出现,甚至有“民为神主”的表达,而认为这说明了春秋时抚民的发展和事神的衰落。这种看法一则不全面,忽略了在春秋之时“德”的事神倾向也有增强的表现;二则忽视了抚民与祖灵信仰、祭祀、事神的有机关系,对关键史料解读不足。抚民作为“德”的一面,与事神一起关联着农业生产、最终服务于“保祭祀”的目的。“保祭祀”的本质仍是事神,与春秋时期氏族的组织机制的存在相生相伴。彼时萌芽的个人化的新“德”与社会结构变化相关,和旧“德”在春秋时是共存的。
 
关键词: 德;事神;抚民;春秋时期;氏族组织机制
 
 
“Worshipping gods” in the concept of “De” in the Spring and Autumn period
 
TAN Xiao
 
(School of History, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China)
 
Abstract: The concept “De” derived from the time of Zhougong, but was still influential in the period of Spring and Autumn. It includes two aspects: “worshipping god” and “appeasing people”. Most scholars hold that the latter aspect was flourishing whilst the former one was declining in the Spring and Autumn Period when there were a lot of sayings about the connection between “De” and the aspect of “appeasing people”. However, this view is not complete as there were also a lot of sayings about the strengthening of “worshipping god”. Nor is the view accurate as it neglected the organic relations among “De”, the belief of ancestral spirits, sacrifice and worshipping gods. “Appeasing people” as an aspect of "De", together with “worshipping gods”, shared a connection with agriculture and served the purpose of “preserving the worship”. But the essence still lied in “worshipping gods”, coexisting with the organizing mechanism of clan through the period of Spring and Autumn. There was a sprouting and individualized form of “De” indeed with the transition of social structure. These two forms of “De” coexisted at that time.
 
Key words: De; worshipping gods; appeasing people; Spring and Autumn period; organizing mechanism of clan
 
 
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