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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2017年05月第23卷第3期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2017)03-0155-09
 
从乐府入律看五言诗的“古”“近”之变
 
韩达
 
(北京大学中文系,北京,100871)
 
摘  要: 南北朝至初唐时期的乐府逐步实现了由新体诗向律体的转变,而这一时期同样是五言诗由古体趋于近体的重要阶段。通过统计这一阶段五言乐府及五言徒诗的声病演变情况,可以发现五言诗“古”“近”之变的关键之一在于齐梁以来对旧题乐府的改造以及对南北朝乐府民歌的吸纳。这一阶段的五言乐府可以归纳出四四式、二六式和二四二式三种趋近于近体律诗的篇制类型。它们既是五言乐府由古入律的途径,也是这一时期诗人探索律化规律过程中重视“复古”观念的结果。南北朝诗人通过仿效乐府体式上的“古体”色彩,借以纠正齐梁诗歌过分骈俪化的弊病,导入单行散句,最终促成了五言近体骈散结合的体调特色。五言诗的“古”“近”之别正是在声律转严与句式复古的实践与互动中产生的。
 
关键词: 乐府入律;五言诗;篇制;古体;近体
 
 
The change of Five-word Poetry from “the old” to “the new” seen from how yuefu poetry is turned into rhymed verse
 
HAN Da
 
(Department of Chinese Language and Literature, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China)
 
Abstract: From Southern and Northern Dynasties to Tang Dynasty, yuefu poetry gradually evolved from the new-style poetry to rhymed verse stage by stage, which is also an important stage for the Five-word Poetry to experience the change from “the old” to “the new.” Through the data analysis of the deviation of Five-word yuefu and non-musical poems during this period, it can be found that one of the keys to cause the change from Five-word Poetry to rhymed verse lies in the reformation of yuefu on old themes and in absorption of folk yuefu in So, uthern and Northern Dynasties. The Five-word yuefu poetry in this period could be classified into such three molds as “four-four type”, “two-six type” and “two-four-two type” which is similar to rhymed verse. These molds are not only the ways to turn the Five-word yuefu poetry to rhymed verse, but also the results of “returning to the ancient” in the process when poets were exploring rhyming regularity. The poets of Southern and Northern Dynasties corrected the deviation of over-antithesis of Qi and Liang poems by imitating the old yuefu style, which brought about some major characteristics of rhyming verse. And it was exactly in practice and interaction when prosody became stricter and sentence patterns returned to the ancient that arose the difference between “the old” and “the new” of Five-word Poetry.
 
Key words: yuefu rhymed verse; Five-word Poetry; poem structure; old poem form; latest style
 
 
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