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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2015年12月第21卷第6期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2015)06-0063-07
 
中世纪晚期英格兰济贫法中的教会法元素研究
 
赵博阳
 
(上海社会科学院宗教研究所,上海,200020)
 
摘  要: 中世纪晚期的英格兰济贫法与中世纪教会济贫法之间有着明显的延续性,而非是与前代全然割裂的新系统。中世纪教会济贫法为英格兰济贫法的诞生和发展奠定了基础。中世纪晚期英格兰济贫法中的教会法元素体现在堂区济贫职能的沿用、强调对济贫责任的承担、实施差别救济、强制布施等方面。然而,中世纪晚期的教会法学家们在他们前辈们创立的济贫理论之上停滞不前,对于一些急需解决的济贫实践问题也视而不见。中世纪教会济贫法由于逐渐脱离社会实际导致僵化,英格兰济贫法在继承其精髓的基础上,克服了这一缺陷,因而得以取而代之。
 
关键词: 济贫法;英格兰;教会法;贫困;中世纪晚期
 
 
A study on elements of Canon Laws in English Poor Laws in the late Middle Ages
 
ZHAO Boyang
 
(Institute of Religions, Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences, Shanghai 200020, China)
 
Abstract: The English Poor Laws in the late Middle Ages, rather than a completely new system which reveals a break from the previous one, enjoys obvious continuity with the medieval ecclesiastical poor laws, which laid a solid foundation for its birth and development. The elements of canon laws are embodied in such respects as the adoption of the function of parishes, the emphatic undertaking of the responsibility of poor relief, the implementation of discriminate relief, obligatory almsgiving, and so on. Nevertheless, the canonists in the late Middle Ages only repeated old doctrines faithfully, but failed to formulate a new response to the problems of their own times. The medieval ecclesiastical poor laws became rigid due to its being divorced from reality. Inheriting the former’s essence, the English Poor Laws in the late Middle Ages overcame such defect, and therefore took the place.
 
Key words: Poor Laws; England; Canon Laws; poverty; the late Middle Ages
 
 
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