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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2015年12月第21卷第6期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2015)06-0001-07
 
论思想实验的合法性——对波普尔思想实验观的批评
 
赵煦
 
(河海大学马克思主义学院,江苏南京,210098)
 
摘  要: 思想实验作为一种有效的方法,被波普尔运用于多处论证中。但他认为,在运用思想实验捍卫理论而对控方进行反击时,不能引入任何理想情况或其他特别假设,因为这样常会导致对思想实验的狡辩式使用。这是不可接受的。他以爱因斯坦和玻尔就EPR之争为例,对这类思想实验作出了严厉批判。波普尔的狡辩式的思想实验观存在着严重的问题。事实上,实验条件的理想化是思想实验的本质特征,思想实验无法摆脱条件理想化的运用。只要理想化的条件设置能够对科学问题的解决有所帮助,都是合法的。破除波普尔的狡辩式的思想实验观,将使得思想实验在当代科学前沿能够得到更加有效的运用。
 
关键词: 波普尔;思想实验;狡辩式的思想实验观;EPR论证;理想情况
 
 
On the legitimacy of thought experiments: Criticisms on Popper’s viewpoints of sophistry thought experiments
 
ZHAO Xu
 
(School of Marxism, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China)
 
Abstract: T Thought experiments are an effective method and have been applied to multiple arguments by Popper. But he believes when we use thought experiments to defend theory against the prosecutor, we can not cite any ideals or other special assumptions, because it often leads to a sophistry use of thought experiments, which, however, is unacceptable. Citing the dispute about the EPR argumentation between Einstein and Bohr, he makes a severe critique on this kind of thought experiments. There are some serious problems with Popper's viewpoints of sophistry thought experiments. In fact, idealization of the experiment conditions is the essential characteristic of thought experiments, and thought experiments can not get rid of the use of idealized conditions. As long as the setting of idealized conditions is helpful for the solution of scientific problems, they are legitimate. Getting rid of Popper’s viewpoints of sophistry thought experiments, thought experiments will be able to be more effectively applied in scientific frontier.
 
Key words: Popper; thought experiment; sophistry type of thought experiment Outlook; sophistry EPR argumentation; ideals
 
 
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