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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2016年04月第22卷第2期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2016)02-0193-08
 
1989年民主德国危机与柏林墙倒塌之内外因考察
 
王帅
 
(南京大学历史学院,江苏南京,210093)
 
摘  要: 作为1989年东欧八国政治巨变中的一环,民主德国危机与柏林墙的倒塌具有其独特性。匈牙利民主化改革、联邦德国对“东方政策”的背离以及二者的结合直接导致了东德危机的全面爆发。昂纳克的继续保守引起苏联的不满致使他下台。克伦茨的“变革”计划面临着外债缺口与政治民主化的双重压力,他与戈尔巴乔夫周密设计的改革计划也未能解决“要么民主化、要么经济崩溃”的核心矛盾。柏林墙的轰然倒塌削弱了四大国的合法权利、激励了民众的统一热情、直接动摇了东德政府的控制力与改革计划,并使德国问题重新回归国际政治议程。但不论柏林墙是否倒塌,克伦茨的改革计划都难获成功,东德民主化的脚步也难以停止。
 
关键字: 1989年;民主德国危机;柏林墙倒塌;东欧剧变
 
 
Exploration into the internal and external causes of 1989 GDR Crisis and the Fall of the Berlin Wall
 
WANG Shuai
 
(School of History, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China)
 
Abstract: As a ring of eight eastern Europe countries’ political upheaval in 1989, the GDR Crisis and the Fall of the Berlin Wall have its uniqueness. Since the democratic reform in Hungary, FRG’s betrayal on the “Ostpolitik” and the combination of the two led directly to the full-blown crisis in GDR. Honecker’s continual conservative led to the discontent of the Soviet Union which finally brought him down. Krenz’s “Wende” program faced the dual pressures of external debt and political democratization, and the well-designed reform program from him and Gorbachev could not solve the core contradictions of “either democratization or economic collapse”. The tumbling down of the Berlin Wall undermined the legitimate rights of the four countries, inspired the people’s enthusiasm of unity, directly shook the East German government’s control and reform plans, and made the German question return to the international political agenda. But regardless of the Fall of the Berlin Wall, Krenz’s reform program could hardly be successful, and the pace of GDR’s democratization could hardly be stopped.
 
Key words: 1989 year; GDR Crisis; the Fall of the Berlin Wall; drastic changes in Eastern Europe
 
 
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