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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2016年06月第22卷第3期
   
本文已被:浏览1889次    下载774次   
文章编号:1672-3104(2016)03-0022-06
 
齐硕姆的部分学的本质主义理论
 
邹志勇,李似珍
 
(铜仁学院武陵民族文化研究中心,贵州铜仁,554300;华东师范大学哲学系,上海,200241)
 
摘  要: 齐硕姆的部分学的本质主义理论认为,如果任何事物是某个整体的一部分,那么只要该整体存在,它就是该整体的一部分,该整体在它存在的每一个可能世界中都具有该部分,对象的部分对于该对象是本质性的。他认为我们必须区分严格的哲学意义上的真部分和松散的日常意义上的非真部分,失去真部分将使得一对象改变它的身份,但失去非真部分,这个对象的身份却仍将保持住。齐硕姆的这个理论可以用于处理提修斯之船难题,即:在一对象的每一部分都相继被替换后,该对象是否仍保持它的身份。
 
关键词: 齐硕姆;部分学的本质主义;接续之是;提修斯之船难题
 
 
Chisholm’s theory of Mereological Essentialism
 
ZOU Zhiyong, LI Sizhen
 
(Culture Study Center of Wuling Mountain Area, Tongren College, Tongren 554300, China;
Philosophy Department, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China)
 
Abstract: Roderick Chisholm’s theory of Meterological Essentialism claims that if anything is a part of a whole, then it is a part of that whole as long as that whole exists, that the whole possesses the part in every possible world in which the whole exists, and that the parts of an object are essential to that object. He argues that we must distinguish between a proper part in a strict philosophical sense and an improper part in a looser ordinary sense. The loss of a proper part will cause an object to change its identity, whilst the identity of an object will be maintained with the loss of an improper part. This theory is useful in dealing with puzzles such as that of the ship of Theseus, in which we ask whether an object maintains its identity after each of its parts is successively replaced.
 
Key words: Chisholm; Mereological Essentialism; ens successivam; puzzle of the ship of Theseus
 
 
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