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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2016年12月第22卷第6期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2016)06-0149-07
 
论决策科学化与民主化的两难困境及化解——基于专家与公民的知识分工理念的分析
 
孙秋芬
 
(南京大学政府管理学院,江苏南京,210046)
 
摘  要: 在现代公共政策的制定过程中,虽然科学化与民主化被作为口号一起使用,但在表面一致性的背后却存在着两难困境:科学化和民主化不可兼得。社会问题和决策过程的专业化、复杂化要求科学化,而科学化带来的专家主导决策会导致民主化的形式化知识分工主张让普通公众掌握社会所要追求的目标的知识专家掌握实现这些目标的手段的知识,不仅把公众的知识和文化带到公共政策中来,而且将专家的功能限定在手段的层面并为公民服务这就在很大程度上使专家与公民共同决定公共政策的制定过程从而使决策科学化和民主化的关系可以得到平衡。
 
关键词: 知识分工;决策;科学化;民主化
 
 
A dilemma between scientization and democratization of decision making and its solution: An analysis based on the knowledge division of the expert and citizen
 
SUN Qiufen
 
(School of Government Administration, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046, China)
 
Abstract: In the process of making public policy nowadays, scientization and democratization have been hanged together to be one, but behind the superficial consistence,there exists a dilemma between them that scientization and democratization cannot be achieved at the same time. On the one hand, the specialization and complexity of the social problems and the decision-making process require scientization. On the other hand, expert-oriented decision-making would lead to destruction of the spirit of democratization. The account of knowledge division of labor claims that the general public should grasp the knowledge of the goals that the society desires to pursue, and experts grasp the knowledge of the means of achieving these goals. This is not only to bring the public knowledge and culture into the public policy, but also to constrain the function of the experts at the level of the means to serve the citizens. To a large extent, this can help experts and citizens go together to determine the process of public policy, and at last the relationship between scientization and democratization of decision-making can be balanced.
 
Key words: the knowledge division of labor; decision making; scientization; democratization
 
 
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