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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2016年12月第22卷第6期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2016)06-0053-07
 
论认知风格对法官决策差异形成的影响
 
韩振文
 
(浙江大学光华法学院,浙江杭州,310008;山东理工大学法学院,山东淄博,255049)
 
摘  要: 认知风格作为认知双重加工理论中系统二的重要组成部分,对决策活动产生的影响稳定且持久,但它在司法决策中的作用机制却是一个尚待澄清的核心问题。法官的认知风格是司法决策中个体差异的主要变量,处于整个决策心理机制的顶端,而这种认知风格的个体差异又决定着法官对裁判影响因子的排序。置于认知风格理论模型下,法官决策差异与同案同判、个案正义的悖论冲突可得到有效化解。在司法决策中引进社会科学理由及其训练,可较好地改善法官的认知风格,相应地提升法官认定事实的能力,最终有助于控制法官决策间的过度差异。从年龄阅历视角考察认知风格与法官决策的关联,可以发现司法决策的差异程度可能随着年龄、阅历的增加而出现递减效应,而且专家式法官的认知风格甚至塑造出一国司法在特定时期内的传统形象,从而在长时段比较上司法决策会呈现出阶段性的差异。
 
关键词: 认知风格;法官决策差异;影响因子;心理机制;司法假定
 
 
Influence of cognitive style on the judicial decision-making differences
 
HAN Zhengwen
 
(School of Law, Zhenjiang University, Hangzhou 310008, China; School of Law, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049, China)
 
Abstract: Cognitive style, as the important composition of the cognitive second double processing system, has a stable and lasting influence on decision making, but its mechanism of action in the judicial decision-making is a core issue which needs to be clarified. The judge’s cognitive style, as the major variable of the individual difference in the judicial decision-making, ranks at the top of the whole psychological mechanism of decision-making. But the difference in cognitive style of each individual judge determines the order of the judicial influencing factors of judges. In the cognitive style theory model, the paradox of justice conflict between the judge’s difference in decision-making, consistent judgments in similar cases and the individual case justice can be resolved effectively. By introducing the social scientific reason and relative training into the judicial decision-making, we can improve the cognitive style of the judge better, promote the judge’s ability to ascertain the facts accordingly and help to control excessive difference between judicial decisions in the end. By investigating the cognitive style and the judge’s decision-making from the perspective of age experience, we can find that difference in the judicial decision-making may diminish with the increase of the judge’s age and experiences. And the cognitive style of expert judges even creates a country’s judicial traditional image in a specific period of time. Therefore, through comparison over a long period of time, the judicial decision presents periodic differences.
 
Key words: cognitive style; judicial decision-making differences; influence factor; psychological mechanism; judicial assumption
 
 
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