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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2016年12月第22卷第6期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2016)06-0001-09
 
神学人格的逻辑解构——重思黑格尔到马克思的宗教批判线索
 
张添翼
 
(东北电力大学马克思主义学院,吉林吉林,132000)
 
摘  要: 启蒙运动肇始至今,西方的神学政治问题日渐凸显,在哲学观念引发政治变革的时代背景中,人们亟待反思马克思关于宗教批判已经终结的判断。在黑格尔、青年黑格尔派到马克思的思想沿袭中,宗教批判究竟为政治批判提供了什么样的理论前提?通过与“思辨的有神论者”的论争,黑格尔批判了将神学人格视为公共政治精神基础的做法,他主张在社会关系中缔造伦理人格,伦理人格是在世俗化宗教中缔造政治权威的思想前提。作为思想继承者的青年黑格尔派在不同理论层面上强化了宗教人格主义,及其作为特定自我观念在政治领域内的引申。其中,施特劳斯强调民众普遍信念对于构筑宗教意识的核心作用,进而演绎出代表人类最高道德实体的“类”观念;费尔巴哈则把“类”视为人格的自由本质,希望通过从神学到人本学的转换,最大限度地弘扬人的主体性价值。对于马克思而言,以往的宗教批判为政治批判提供了基准:自由人格的实现,不能再依靠宗教意识和人本主义说教,而必须深入到市民社会成员的利己精神之中,寻求扬弃资本异化的全新政治方案。
 
关键词: 人格;神学;宗教;理性;类
 
 
Logical reconstruction of theological personality: Analysis of Hegel to Marx’s critique of religious clues
 
ZHANG Tianyi
 
(College of Marxism, Northeast Dianli University, Jilin 132000, China)
 
Abstract: Since the onset of the Enlightenment, the western theological-political issues have become increasingly prominent, and in the historical context of political drastic changes caused by philosophical ideas, people needed to reflect on the judgment that Marxist critique at religion had ended. In following thoughts from Hegel to Marx, what kind of theoretical premise does religious critique provide for political critique? Through the debate over the “speculative theist,” Hegel criticized the practice of viewing theological personality as the spiritual basis of public politics. Instead, he advocates creating ethical personality in social relations. Young Hegelians, as ideological successors, strengthen religious personalism at different theoretical levels and its specific self-concept in the political field. Among them, Strauss emphasizes the vital role of public faith in building widespread religious awareness, and hence deduces the concept of “class” which represents the highest ethical entity on behalf of mankind. Feuerbach regards “class” as the essence of freedom of personality, hoping to uphold man's subjectivity to its maximum by converting theology to human ontology. For Marx, all previous religious criticisms provide the ground for political criticism in that realization of free personality, rather than relying on religious awareness and moral teachings, needs to go deep into the self-interest spirit among the members of civil society to seek brand-new political strategies of abandoning private ownership and capitalist alienation.
 
Key words: personality; theology; religion; rationality; class
 
 
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