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自然科学版 英文版
自然科学版 英文版
 

中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2014年06月第20卷第3期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2014)03-0266-07
 
试析《租借法案》在英美经济霸权转移中的作用
 
杨永锋
 
(四川大学历史文化学院,四川成都,610064)
 
摘  要: 《租借法案》是二战期间美国为援助英国及其他反法西斯国家而出台的一项重要法规。据此法规,英国从美国得到了巨额的租借援助,也付出了高昂的代价。一方面,美国以租借援助为杠杆不断向英国施压,迫使其接受美国所倡导的重塑战后国际经济新秩序的要求。该要求不仅意味着英国在战后将失去保护其脆弱经济的屏障,也预示着将世界经济霸权之位拱手让与美国。为此,英美双方在第一阶段租借补偿谈判中展开了激烈的较量。另一方面,根据《租借补偿协议》,美国对英国的美元储备及出口做了严格限制。这使得英国出口急剧萎缩,财政赤字不断加剧,经济严重依赖美国,为了战后经济和平转型及重建,英国再次向美求援,是为第二阶段租借谈判。二战结束后,美国停止了租借援助并与英国就租借物资展开了总清算。
 
关键词: 二战期间;《租借法案》;英国;美国;战后经济新秩序;世界经济霸权
 
 
On the role of Lend-Lease Act in the transfer of British and American economic hegemony
 
YANG Yongfeng
 
(Institute of history and culture, Northwest University for Nationalities, LanZhou 730030, China)
 
Abstract: The Lend-Lease Act was an important program under which the United States supplied Great Britain and other Anti-Fascist Nations with materials between 1941 and 1945. According to the agreement on loan, the United Kingdom received a huge amount of loan aid from the United States and paid a high price. On the one hand, the U.S. kept on putting the pressure on Britain by loan aid, forcing it to accept to reshape the Post-War international economic orders advocated by the United States, which not only meant that the UK would lose barrier to protect its weak economy after the War, also indicated that the economic hegemony of the world would be handed over to the United States. Therefore, both sides engaged in a fierce battle at the first stage of the Lend-Lease compensation negotiations. On the other hand, in accordance with the compensation agreement on loan, the U.S. limited the United Kingdom’s dollar reserves and trade strictly, which made British exports decline sharply and fiscal deficit rise seriously, therefore the UK economy depended heavily on the U.S.A. In order to achieve a peaceful transition and Post-War reconstruction, the United Kingdom turned to the United States once again, that is, the second phase of Lend-Lease negotiations. After the end of the World War II, the United States withdrew the rent aids and held a total liquidation with Britain on the rented materials.
 
Key words: During World War II; Lend-Lease Act; Britain; the United States; the Post-War international; economic order; international economic hegemony
 
 
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