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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2014年06月第20卷第3期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2014)03-0058-05
 
“积极自由”与“消极自由”
——弗洛姆自由思想及其对伯林的回应
 
张夺
 
(陕西师范大学政治经济学院,陕西西安,710006)
 
摘  要: 弗洛姆对“积极自由”与“消极自由”的区分,具有着重要的伦理与政治意义。其自由概念的实质是通过人的本质力量的发展来反对外在权威,提倡通过人自身发展与社会条件的改善实现真正的自由,孜孜以求人的自由发展。伯林的自由概念的实质则是阻止权威的入侵,摆脱任何形式的束缚,体现对最低限度的个人自由不可侵犯的神圣信仰。伯林在《自由论》中对弗洛姆的“积极自由”进行了批判,他认为“积极自由”最终会走向自由的反面,导致人自由的丧失,而只有“消极自由”才能确保人的自由和权利。弗洛姆从人的发展与潜能实现的角度认为,“积极自由”在逻辑上已包含了“消极自由”,“消极自由”是实现“积极自由”的必要条件,但只有“积极自由”才能保障人之自由的全面实现。这是弗洛姆对伯林等西方自由主义的最好回应。弗洛姆的“积极自由”更符合人的本性,更能代表人类发展的趋势和要求。
 
关键词: 埃里希·弗洛姆;以赛亚·伯林;消极自由;积极自由;自由主义;西方马克思主义哲学
 
 
“Positive liberty” and “negative liberty”—— Fromm’s view of liberty and his response to Berlin’s critique
 
ZHANG Duo
 
(College of Politics and Economics of Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062, China)
 
Abstract: Erich Fromm made a distinction between “positive liberty” and “negative liberty”, which had important ethical and political significance. The essence of Fromm’s view of liberty was against external authority through the development of human’s essential power. Fromm diligently sought human’s liberty and development, and he advocated that true liberty could be realized through human development and the improvement of social conditions. The essence of Isaiah Berlin’s view of liberty was to prevent the authority intrusion, to get rid of any form of bondage, which reflects Isaiah Berlin’s holy faith in the minimum individual liberty inviolable. In his book of Liberty, Isaiah Berlin also proposed two concepts of liberty and held that “positive liberty” put forward by Erich Fromm would lead to the opposite of liberty and bring about the loss of liberty, and he thought only “negative liberty” could ensure human’ s liberty and rights. With the perspective of human development and potential fulfillment, Fromm thought "positive liberty” contained “negative liberty” logically, and “negative liberty” was a necessity of achieving “positive liberty”. However, only “positive liberty” could guarantee the full realization of human liberty. This is Fromm’s best response to Berlin and other western liberal’s critique. Positive liberty is human nature, so it represents the trend and demand of human development.
 
Key words: Erich Fromm; Isaiah Berlin; negative liberty; positive liberty; liberalism; western Marxist philosophy
 
 
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