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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2008年02月第14卷第1期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2008)01−0095−06
 
湖南辛酉春荒(1921年)及成因之考察
 
张安东
 
(巢湖学院历史系, 安徽巢湖, 238000)
 
摘  要: 自古以来湖南就是全国粮食最重要的产区之一。明清以降,湖南的粮食生产仍在全国占重要地位。然而,湖南却于1921年春夏间发生了空前的春荒。春荒具有延续时间长、波及范围广、危害程度深的特征。导致此次空前春荒发生的原因错综复杂。尽管存在气候失调、粮食减产等因素,但基本原因却是兵灾匪乱与沉重的捐税负担,弄得民穷财尽,湘民承受灾荒的能力十分脆弱,以及省县财政濒于破产与金融枯竭,遭遇春荒,挽救乏术,结果使春荒越演越烈。总起来说,七分系兵灾匪祸,三分为水旱等天灾。
 
关键词: 春荒;兵灾匪祸;天灾
 
 
A probe into the cause of the unprecedented famine in Hunan in the spring of 1921
 
ZHANG Andong
 
(History Department, Chaohu College, Chaohu 238000, China)
 
Abstract: Hunan Province has been one of the most important areas for production of grain since ancient time. It also took a leading position in the production of grain all over China after the establishment of the Republic of China in 1912. However, between the spring and summer of 1921, there occurred an unprecedented food crisis in Hunan Province characterized by its longer continuance, greater perniciousness than ever before. Although there existed an intricate combination of bad weather and reduction of grain, its essential cause came from the social turmoil and chaos caused by war and banditry and the exorbitant taxes and levies which resulted in the dire poverty of Hunan people who had no means of livelihood to tide over a lean year and the financial crises of both the provincial and county governments which had no means to confront the spring famine due to crop failures with worsening situations. In short, the main cause of the famine in that year was seventy per cent due to war and banditry and thirty per cent to the natural calamities of flood and drought.
 
Key words: spring famine; war and banditry; natural calamities
 
 
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