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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2011年08月第17卷第4期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2011)04-0182-05
 
危机传播中新闻媒体的放大器效应及行为选择
 
白寅,余俊
 
(中南大学文学院,湖南长沙,410083)
 
摘  要: 在危机传播情态下,新闻媒体有三种行为选择策略:一是采取放任的危机报道行为;二是利用反复核实甄别的负反馈手段,尽量缩小报道与事实之间的“失真”程度;三是隔绝危机信息。这三种不同的行为策略带给各利益相关者不同的利弊。通过对危机组织、社会公众、政府部门以及媒体本身在危机传播中的利弊博弈分析,可以发现,对各方利益受损最小化方案就是由新闻媒体对危机事件进行及时而准确的报道。各利益主体必须学会通过媒体向利益相关者宣示自己的危机管理措施,表达自己负责任的态度,利用媒体塑造组织形象,以期转危为安、化危为机。
 
关键词: 危机传播;危机公关;新闻媒体;放大器效应;利益相关者
 
 
The Amplification Effect and Behavior Choices of

the News Media in Crisis spreading

 
BAI Ying, XU Juen
 
(School of Literature, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China)
 
Abstract: Under the crisis-spreading atmosphere, the news media have got three strategies of behavior choices: First, taking a laissez-faire behavior for crisis broadcasting, and causing a serious distortion of the signal, just as a amplifier without filtering, and we call this “amplification effect”; Second, by cross-examining the means of negative feedback, trying to reduce the distortion between coverage and the fact, which we call “filtering effect”; Third, cutting off the crisis information, as turning off the amplifier, which we call “sound insulation effect”. These three different behavioral strategies bring different stakeholders with advantages and disadvantages respectively. By analyzing the pros and cons in the process of crisis spreading between those crisis groups, the public, government departments and the media itself, we can find that the best solution to protect the interests of each side is to perform filtering function by the news media, that is, to make reports timely and accurately towards crisis events. All stakeholders must learn to express, through the media, their crisis management measures, to express their responsible attitude, only to shape the image of the organization by using the media can they turn crises into opportunities.
 
Key words: crisis-spreading; crisis public relations; news media; amplification effect; stakeholders
 
 
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