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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2011年08月第17卷第4期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2011)04-0024-06
 
1970年UNESCO公约对文化财产非法
流转的规制及其效力
 
郑蓉妮1, 2,梅建军2
 
(1. 中南大学马克思主义学院,湖南长沙,410083;
2. 北京科技大学科学技术与文明研究中心,北京,100083)
 
摘  要: 为了使文化财产免于偷盗、非法挖掘和非法出口的危险,联合国教科文组织于1970年制定通过了《关于禁止和防止非法进出口文化财产和非法转让其所有权的方法的公约》。该公约在防止文化财产非法流转的效力上存在缺陷,体现在出口许可证制度、偷盗或非法出口文化财产的进口限制、对善意购买人的补偿机制、危机条款、对经销商的管制程度等方面。1995年UNIDROIT公约弥补了1970年UNESCO公约的某些不足。1995年《国际统一私法协会关于被盗或非法出口文物的公约》扩展了偷盗物的范围,非法挖掘的文物被视为偷盗物,并且公约对是否是审慎购买人设置了一定标准。
 
关键词: 1970年UNESCO公约;出口许可证制度;限制进口;偷盗或非法出口文化财产;善意购买人;1995年UNIDROIT
 
 
Mechanism and Effectiveness of 1970 UNESCO Convention on Illicit Movement of the Cultural Property
 
Zheng Rongni1, 2, Mei Jianjun2
 
(1. School of Marxism, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China;
2. Science & Technology and Civilized Research Centre,
University of Science & Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China)
 
Abstract: In order to protect the cultural property against the dangers of theft, clandestine excavation and illicit export, in 1970 the General Conference of UNESCO adopted the Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property. The Convention is inadequate in several important ways, such as the use of export certificates, import restrictions of stolen or illegally exported cultural property, compensation for bona fide purchasers, the emergency provision, and the extent of regulation of antique dealers. 1995 UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects is complementary to the 1970 UNESCO Convention. Special rules have been developed in the UNIDROIT. The convention states that a cultural object which unlawfully excavated shall be considered as theft. The 1995 UNIDROIT Convention also establishes clear criteria for prudent acquirers.
 
Key words: 1970 UNESCO Convention; System of export certificates; Import restrictions; Stolen and illegally exported cultural property; bona fide, Emergency provision; 1995 UNIDROIT
 
 
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